Mustard is the second most important and most prominent winter oilseed crop of India. It is grown mainly in the northern plains of India. Mustard is an annual herb cultivated as oil seed crop, as vegetable and as fodder. There are three main species that are pale yellow or white mustard (Brassica hirta), brown mustard (Brassica juncea) and black mustard (Brassica nigra). The yellow/white mustard is indigenous to Southern Europe, whereas brown mustard is from China introduced to Northern India. The black mustard is endemic in the Southern Mediterranean region. The white mustard is widely cultivated in Australia, China, Chili, Denmark, Italy, Japan, The UK, The Netherlands, North Africa, Canada and USA. India is the third largest rapeseed-mustard producer in the world after China and Canada. Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) is predominantly cultivated in the states of Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, and Gujarat.